Take a variety of antioxidant supplements Antioxidant Supplements

Antioxidant Supplements

Antioxidants guard against the free radical theory of aging.[1]

There are enough published scientific research studies to act on taking antioxidant supplements and other critical nutrients, as added insurance against the ill effects of aging.

Highlights of Antioxidant Supplements:

  • Antioxidants help to halt the oxidative damage degenerative process.
  • Take a variety of antioxidant supplements, at low to moderate dosages, rather than mega-dosages of only one or two antioxidants.
  • The Primary OBJECTIVE of taking a variety of the right antioxidant supplements is NOT to create an antioxidant defense system; but rather to boost your body's enzymatic antioxidant defense system (which consists of glutathione reductase/peroxidase and other important antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase).[25],[26],[29]
    • Non-enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms, such as vitamins C and E, work by interrupting chain reactions that would otherwise result in oxidation of cells caused by release of substances, from cell membranes. So instead of a process that might involve a hundred molecules, if you have vitamin E around it might stop after only five reactions.
    • In contrast, enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms works by removing free radicals because its has picked up an additional electron.
      • In other words, your body's enzymatic antioxidant defense system is much more effective than antioxidant supplements.
    • Boosting your body's enzymatic antioxidant defense system is done with a three prong approach.
      • Take the antioxidant supplements listed below.
      • Take the mineral supplements listed below.
      • Eat lots of fruits and vegetables .
  • The Secondary OBJECTIVEs of taking a variety of the right antioxidants are to:
    • recycle each antioxidant taken; and
    • AVOID the pro-oxidation effects of single supplements.
  • It is very important to be taking antioxidant supplements, if you are older than 45, in order to halt the Oxidative Damage Degenerative Process.

"Overall, the present data suggest that protection against oxidative damage and related disease is best served by the variety of antioxidant substances found in fruit and vegetables."[2] From the Natural Health Perspective a variety of antioxidant supplements at low to moderate dosages are more effective than mega-dosages of one or two antioxidants, when taken in addition to a good diet that includes plenty of fruit and vegetables. There are synergistic interactions among the various antioxidants of your body's antioxidant defense system.[7] "Thus, the combination of a healthy diet supplemented with antioxidants and phytonutrients may be useful in the prevention and promotion of optimum cardiovascular health."[16]

Free Radicals & Antioxidant Supplements

Take a variety of antioxidant supplements

Good health is all about balance in your life. The level that you should be at depends on how the other areas in your life are going. Beginners to my wellness program should take antioxidants at the Beginner Level. No one really needs to start the Intermediate Level until they reach the age of 45. But, if your diet is going great and you are regularly exercising you can seriously consider taking antioxidants at the Advanced Level.

The body's principal antioxidants are vitamins E (fat soluble) and C (water soluble). Vitamin E is also important for the detoxication processes in the liver and for the immune defense.[22] They recycle each other. Selenium works synergistically with vitamin E.[8] "Selenium is [also] necessary for the synthesis of glutathione peroxidase."[22]

The greatest boost to your antioxidant program will come from adding Alpha Lipoic Acid (water & fat soluble). It can significantly regenerate through redox cycling other antioxidants like vitamin C and vitamin E, and raise intracellular Glutathione levels.[5],[6] Zinc, copper and selenium are part of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase.[27],[28] The most abundant antioxidant found in your body, Glutathione (water soluble) plays an important role in cellular protection from oxidative damage of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.[7] Glutathione is also present in high concentrations in most living cells and has been long associated with the process of detoxication, both at the cellular level and in the liver.[23],[24]

Coenzyme Q-10 (fat soluble) recycles vitamin E, as well as strengthens your heart.[9],[10] It can also prevent any pro-oxidant activity of Vitamin E.[10],[11] The combination of Flavonoids and Vitamin C boosts the effectiveness of both.[17],[18] The flavonoids, also, conserve the alpha-tocopherol content of LDL and delay the onset of lipid peroxidation.[15]


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The best way to promote optimum levels of glutathione is to eat a good healthy diet. "Fruits and vegetables were found to contribute over 50% of usual dietary glutathione intake, whereas meats contributed less than 25%."[20] Nevertheless, Glutamine is a direct precursor to glutathione and is the rate-limiting nutrient for glutathione formation.[3],[4]

Methylcobalamin is a special form of Vitamin B-12 that strengthens the central nervous system. It has been reported to protect the brain against any possible glutamate neurotransmitter overloads.[14]

Glutathione is easily broken down by digestive enzymes and is also NOT well absorbed when taken orally.[21] Alpha Lipoic Acid recycles more Glutathione than NAC produces.[19]

Beta-Carotene supplements have been linked to an increased risk of lung cancer. The Carotene antioxidants should be supplemented through your diet.

Level Supplements
Beginner
  • Vitamin E - 400 IU a day if under 45, 800 IU a day if over 45
  • Vitamin C - 250 mg 4 times a day
  • Selenium - 200 mcg a day
Intermediate
  • Alpha Lipoic Acid - 50 mg twice a day.
  • Zinc - 25 mg per day
  • Copper - 3 mg per day
  • Plus the Beginner Level supplements
Advanced
  • Coenzyme Q-10 - 30 mg daily
  • Flavonoids
    • Ginkgo Biloba[12] - 30 mg daily
    • Grape Seed Extract: Proanthocyanidins (OCP or PCO),[13] or Pine Bark Extract: Pycnogenol - 50 mg daily, or Resveratrol
    • Citrus Bioflavonids - 250 mg 4 times a day
  • Plus the Intermediate Level supplements
Super Advanced
  • L-Glutamine - 1,000 mg daily
  • Methylcobalamin - 1,000 mcg daily
  • Plus the Advanced Level supplements
  • Increase your dosage of Alpha Lipoic Acid to 100 mg twice a day.
Never Take
  • Glutathione
  • NAC
  • Beta-Carotene
Return to Nutritional Supplements and Vitamins

Please read our Nutritional Supplements Disclaimer.

 


Antioxidant Supplements Comments:

References:

  1. Ames BN; Shigenaga MK; Hagen TM. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993 Sep 1;90(17):7915-22.
  2. Jacob RA; Burri BJ. Oxidative damage and defense. Am J Clin Nutr, 1996 Jun, 63:6, 985S-990S.
  3. Amores Sánchez MI; Medina MA. Glutamine, as a precursor of glutathione, and oxidative stress. Mol Genet Metab, 1999 Jun, 67:2, 100-5.
  4. Moinova HR; Mulcahy RT. Up-regulation of the human [glutamine-L-cysteine ligase] synthetase regulatory subunit gene involves binding of Nrf-2 to an electrophile responsive element. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1999 Aug, 261:3, 661-8.
  5. Packer L; Tritschler HJ; Wessel K. Neuroprotection by the metabolic antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid. Free Radic Biol Med, 1997, 22:1-2, 359-78.
  6. Biewenga GP; Haenen GR; Bast A. The pharmacology of the antioxidant lipoic acid. Gen Pharmacol, 1997 Sep, 29:3, 315-31.
  7. Gérard Monnier D; Chaudiere J. [Metabolism and antioxidant function of glutathione]. Pathol Biol (Paris), 1996 Jan, 44:1, 77-85.
  8. Bartfay WJ; Hou D; Brittenham GM; Bartfay E. The synergistic effects of vitamin E and selenium in iron-overloaded mouse hearts. Can J Cardiol, 1998 Jul, 14:7, 937-41.
  9. Beyer RE. The role of ascorbate in antioxidant protection of biomembranes: interaction with vitamin E and coenzyme Q. J Bioenerg Biomembr, 1994 Aug, 26:4, 349-58
  10. Thomas SR; Neuzil J; Stocker R. Inhibition of LDL oxidation by ubiquinol-10. A protective mechanism for coenzyme Q in atherogenesis? Mol Aspects Med, 1997, 18 Suppl:, S85-103.
  11. Thomas SR; Neuzil J; Stocker R. Cosupplementation with coenzyme Q prevents the prooxidant effect of alpha-tocopherol and increases the resistance of LDL to transition metal-dependent oxidation initiation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 1996 May, 16:5, 687-96.
  12. Diamond BJ; Shiflett SC; Feiwel N. Ginkgo biloba extract: mechanisms and clinical indications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 2000 May, 81:5, 668-78.
  13. Fine AM. Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes: history, structure, and phytopharmaceutical applications. Altern Med Rev, 2000 Apr, 5:2, 144-51.
  14. Kikuchi M; Kashii S; Honda Y. Protective effects of methylcobalamin, a vitamin B12 analog, against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in retinal cell culture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 1997 Apr, 38:5, 848-54.
  15. de Whalley CV; Rankin SM; Hoult JR. Flavonoids inhibit the oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins by macrophages. Biochem Pharmacol, 1990 Jun, 39:11, 1743-50.
  16. Sinatra ST; DeMarco J. Free radicals, oxidative stress, oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL), and the heart: antioxidants and other strategies to limit cardiovascular damage. Conn Med, 1995 Oct, 59:10, 579-88.
  17. Mathiesen L; Wang S; Halvorsen B. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation in low-density lipoprotein by the flavonoid myrigalone B and ascorbic acid. Biochem Pharmacol, 1996 Jun, 51:12, 1719-25.
  18. Kandaswami C; Perkins E; Soloniuk DS. Ascorbic acid-enhanced antiproliferative effect of flavonoids on squamous cell carcinoma in vitro. Anticancer Drugs, 1993 Feb, 4:1, 91-6.
  19. Sen CK. Glutathione homeostasis in response to exercise training and nutritional supplements. Mol Cell Biochem, 1999 Jun, 196:1-2, 31-42.
  20. Flagg EW; Coates RJ; Eley JW. Dietary glutathione intake in humans and the relationship between intake and plasma total glutathione level. Nutr Cancer, 1994, 21:1, 33-46.
  21. Witschi A; Reddy S; Stofer B. The systemic availability of oral glutathione. Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 1992, 43:6, 667-9.
  22. Kolb E. [Recent nutrition biochemical findings on the importance of vitamion E and selenium in man and animal] Z Gesamte Inn Med, 1982 Jan, 37:2, 37-42.
  23. Monks TJ; Anders MW; Dekant W. Glutathione conjugate mediated toxicities. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 1990 Oct, 106:1, 1-19.
  24. Cantelli Forti G; Hrelia P; Paolini M. The pitfall of detoxifying enzymes. Mutat Res, 1998 Jun, 402:1-2, 179-83.
  25. Vasil'ev AV; Biiasheva IR; Pokrovskaia GR. [The antioxidant defense system in hypertension patients on a diet enriched with omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and alpha-tocopherol] Vopr Med Khim 1994 May-Jun;40(3):53-6.
  26. Yao JK; Reddy R; McElhinny LG. Effects of haloperidol on antioxidant defense system enzymes in schizophrenia. J Psychiatr Res 1998 Nov-Dec;32(6):385-91.
  27. Podracka L; Sasinka M; Racz O. [Relation between metabolism of trace elements and the antioxidant defense system in chronic nephropathies]. Cas Lek Cesk 1999 May 24;138(11):337-9.
  28. Magalova T. [The antioxidant defense system and trace elements]. Bratisl Lek Listy 1994 Dec;95(12):562-5.
  29. "The integral parameter, ... for evaluation of the anti-oxidation protection state ... [is] designated as "anti-oxidation index" involved estimation of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and peroxidase activities ..." Vasil'ev AV; Biiasheva IR; Pokrovskaia GR. : [The antioxidant defense system in hypertension patients on a diet enriched with omega 3 polyunsaturated f



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